Male Genital organs involved in reproduction:
In male the reproductive organs are :
- Vas deferens and seminiferous tubules
- Accessory sex gland such as seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbo-urethral gland and urethral glands
Mechanism of Reproduction:
Now in brief I will discuss about the basic mechanism of pregnancy. In female, previously discussed , there are two organ named ovaries lies in the two sides of lower abdomen ( in medical term these two locations are known as Right and left iliac fossa ). The principle function of ovary is shedding out of ovum into the fallopian tube. This ovum is the fertile seed of the foetus (baby in the womb is called foetus ) . When sperm meets ovum after sexual intercourse, fertilization occurs and foetus is the final outcome of fertilization after completed 37-40 weeks.
Sperm is produced by testis of man and ejaculated after sexual intercourse as a mixed juice called semen. Semen is a milky white thick juice composed of prostatic secretion, mucous, seminiferous secretion and sperm. This capability of reproduction starts in human body from puberty. In female it stops after menopause usually around the age of 45-50 years. But in male it lasts for lifelong.
All the process of reproduction is controlled by hormones in both male and female. As this article is for general person so I will not discuss in detail about the mechanism.
Calculation of probable date of delivery
One can easily count the expected date of delivery. The method is:
Last date of menstruation +complete 9 months +/- 7 days. = the date of delivery of the baby.
Early sign symptoms of pregnancy:
Complete 9 months is considered as full term pregnancy. For treatment or check up purpose Gynecologists divide these 9 months in 3 parts –
- First trimester – first 3 months ( First 12 weeks)
- Second trimester – Middle 3 months (13 to 28 weeks )
- Last trimester – Last 3 months ( 29 to 40 weeks)
Now the sign symptom of pregnancy will be discussed according to 3 trimesters
Signs symptoms in first trimester:
The feeling of first pregnancy is totally a great and unexplainable experience to a mother. Mom always feels excited, happy, as well as fears about the next nine months.
Many physical discomforts arise during the early period of first trimesters. Adaptations with these problems are too much beneficial for the mom and child. So a clear knowledge about the problems should be acquired by the mom.
Reproduction is basically controlled by the endocrine system (Hormonal system)
of our body. So the problems arise due to increase or decrease level of hormone in body.
I already mentioned that “so many physical discomfort”… that is these are not disease conditions. As the discomforts are new experiences to mother so she needs both physical and mental support. The following signs symptoms are found during the first trimesters of pregnancy:
1. Amenorrhea (Missing of menses).
A sexually active female should be aware of pregnancy when she passed a missed period in her regular menstrual cycle and this is the first important event noticed by the mother. Missed period is common to all pregnant female who have regular menstrual cycle.
Some women may notice slight bleeding or discharge during her early stage of pregnancy. If the bleeding is not associated with threatened abortion (bleeding that can cause miscarriage) then there is nothing to worry.
2. Morning sickness :
Nausea, Vomiting, Loss of appetite and vertigo appear soon following the missed period and rarely lasts beyond the 3rd month of pregnancy. Morning sickness in inconsistently present in about 50% cases, particularly in first pregnancy. It usually occurs after rising from bed. These discomforts do not affect the health of the mother.
3. Frequency of micturition (Urination) :
Frequent urination occurs during 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. It occurs due to pregnant uterus rests on urinary bladder. After 12 weeks uterus straightened and the symptom disappears.
4. Breast Discomfort:
Breast tenderness (Tenderness means pain felt on touch), Breast fullness, heaviness, pricking sensation are evident in 6th -8th weeks of pregnancy specially in first pregnancy .
5. Other Symptoms:
Fatigue, tiredness, lethargy, mood elevation, depression occur frequently in early pregnancy.
Early pregnancy signs
Signs means the physical changes that are detect by the physician in patient’s body .
Following signs are found in first trimester:
- Breast Changes: The nipple and areola become more pigmented and black. The Montgomery’s Tubercles (One of the sebaceous glands on the areola of breast of that lubricates the breast during breast feeding) are prominent.
Thick yellow secretion (Colostrums) may be expressed from nipple on 3rd month.
2. Abdominal Sign: (Abdomen means belly in medical term)
Uterus (womb) remains into lower abdomen up to 12 weeks. It can be felt by hand as a bulge up to 12 weeks.
3. Vaginal Signs: Bluish coloration of anterior vaginal wall. Vagina become more vascular (Increased blood supply to vagina) , looks bluish, felt soft .
Copious non-irritating mucoid discharge (white, milky secretion) appears at 6th weeks.
4. Cervix (Mouth of the uterus) : Cervix is seen per vaginally .
Felt soft and enlarged. Pregnant cervix feels like the lips of the mouth, while in non-pregnant state like that of tip of the nose. Bluish coloration of cervix is also noted.
At 7th week uterus resumes size of a large hen’s egg, at 8th week like size of a small orange and at 10th week like size of a large orange. Usually a non pregnant uterus is piriform shaped , but a pregnant uterus becomes globular at 12th weeks . Pregnant uterus feels soft and elastic and a physician can felt a rhythmic contraction on it .
6. Some special physical signs are demonstrated by your doctor that can’t be understood by ordinary people. These are –
a. Jacquemier’s or Chadwick sign .
b. Osiander’s sign
c. Goodell’s sign
d. Piskack’s sign
e . Hegar’s sign
f. Palmer’s sign
All these signs are found by manual procedures that very well-known to an obstetrician.